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HAWKS, Francis Lister.

1. Clinus Polyactocephalus. 2 Gunellus Dolichogaster. 3 Belone Gigantea. 4 Scomberesox.

Plate VII.

Published: New York : D. Appleton ; London : Trubner. 1857

Stock code: 65081

Price: £60

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‘Narrative of the expedition of an American squadron to the China seas and Japan : performed in the years 1852, 1853, and 1854 : under the command of Commodore M. C. Perry / compiled from the original notes and journals of Commodore Perry and his officers, at his request, and under his supervision, by Francis L. Hawks’. In 1852, Perry embarked from Norfolk, Virginia for Japan, in command of a squadron in search of a Japanese trade treaty. Aboard a black-hulled steam frigate, he ported Mississippi, Plymouth, Saratoga, and Susquehanna at Uraga Harbor near Edo (modern Tokyo) on July 8, 1853. His actions at this crucial juncture were informed by a careful study of Japan’s previous contacts with Western ships and what could be known about the Japanese hierarchical culture. He was met by representatives of the Tokugawa Shogunate who told him to proceed to Nagasaki, where there was limited trade with the Netherlands and which was the only Japanese port open to foreigners at that time. Perry refused to leave and demanded permission to present a letter from President Millard Fillmore, threatening force if he was denied. The Japanese government was forced to let Perry come ashore to avoid naval bombardment. Perry returned in February 1854 with twice as many ships, finding that the delegates had prepared a treaty embodying virtually all the demands in Fillmore’s letter. Perry signed the Convention of Kanagawa on March 31, 1854 and departed, mistakenly believing the agreement had been made with imperial representatives. The agreement was made with the Shogun, the de facto ruler of Japan.

Size: 225 x 290 mm. Lithograph with hand colouring. Six pin holes to the bottom of page.

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