The complete set of Friedmann’s solutions to Einstein’s field equations.
Über die Krümmung des Raumes (in Zeitschrift für Physik 10, 1922); Bemerkung zu der Arbeit von A. Friedmann Über die Krümmung des Raumes (in Zeitschrift für Physik 11, 1922); Über die Krümmung des Raumes (in Zeitschrift für Physik 16, 1923); Über die Möglichkeit einer Welt mit konstanter negative Krümmung des Raumes (in Zeitschrift für Physik 21, 1924).
First editions, first impressions of Friedmann’s four cosmological papers in which he correctly derived the solutions to Einstein’s field equations to determine that the universe is expanding. A beautiful copy of this rare set, handsomely bound. Einstein believed the universe to be static, and had introduced the cosmological constant into his equations so that they described an unchanging universe. Friedmann ignored this constant and became the first scientist to embrace the concept of a changing universe. Einstein first reacted negatively, publishing a two-line rebuttal in Zeitschrift für Physik, but after receiving a letter from Friedmann containing all his calculations, Einstein admitted that he had been incorrect and that Friedmann’s solutions were valid. Unfortunately, Friedmann died only a year later, not living long enough to see Edwin Hubble provide the first empirical proof of the expanding universe in 1929.
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4 volumes, octavo (219 159 mm). Each volume a complete issue of the journal. Recent grey cloth, tiles to spines gilt, speckled edges to volumes I and II. Small faint spot to spine of volume II and small spot to upper board of the same volume. A superb, fresh set.