CAREY, Mathew.

A Calm Address to the People of the Eastern States,

on the subject of the Representation of Slaves; the Representation in the Senate; and the Hostility to Commerce ascribed to the Southern States. By the author of the Olive Branch.

Philadelphia: Published by M. Carey, 1814 Stock Code: 149940
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First edition, a defence that both the slave and free states could co-exist as one nation, rejecting that Southern states were over-represented by the Three-Fifths Clause, and holding that the South did not impede a commercial economy.

The Calm Address was published twenty days following Carey's noted Olive Branch pamphlet, which was written in response to the New England states threatening to secede, and which "was the most widely read American political tract since Common Sense and is said to have done much to save the Union" (ANB). This pamphlet continues the arguments Carey had made in the Olive Branch, further promoting the union and refuting the existence of conflicts of interests between states.

The focus is on the subject of the infamous "Three-Fifths Clause", with enslaved persons counted as three-fifths of free persons when allocating congressional representation, which the Northern states held to unduly overrepresent the Southern states. Carey, citing the census data of each state, holds that the representation was not excessive in the House of Representatives, and was moreover balanced by greater representation of the Northern states in the Senate.

The latter part of the pamphlet promotes the national benefits of a Southern slave economy existing in tandem with the Northern manufacturing economy, and rejects notions that the South was hostile to commerce.

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Duodecimo (198 x 118 mm). Disbound and resewn, earlier stab-holes in gutter, fore and lower edge uncut.


Lacking the folding census table.


Errata mounted to terminal page as issued. Contemporary ownership signature (Matthew Learey) and later faint stamp "14141" to title. Light browning, fraying around page extremities. A very good copy.


Sabin 10854.


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