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Die Steigungsverhältnisse der Strassen. Separat-Abdruck aus der Zeitschrift des Architekten- und Ingenieur-Vereins zu Hannover, Band XXVI. Heft 3.

[Bound together with:] LAUNDHARDT, Wilhelm. Theorie des Trassirens. Heft I. Die kommerzielle Trassirung. Zweite Auflage. Mit 19 Holzschnitten.

Hannover: Schmorl & von Seefeld, 1880-1887 Stock Code: 93895
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Presentation copies, inscribed to Professor Fischer by the author, the first work additionally with the ownership of Erich Schneider to the title. Like Dupuit, Launhardt began his professional life as a civil engineer, working for the public road administration. A professor of roads, railways and bridges at the Technische Hochschule (now the University) in Hanover, of which he later became director, Wilhelm Launhardt (1832-1918) was "a pioneer of mathematical economics, an important early contributor to the pure theory of welfare economics, a major figure in the history of location theory, and one of the few German engineer-economists of his day to carry on the tradition of German Classical Economics" (Blaug, Great Economists before Keynes, p. 122).

In Die Steigungsverhältnisse, here offprinted from the Architects and Engineers Association's Journal, Launhardt investigates the influence upon operating costs of gradients.

Theorie des Trassirens is a re-working of Launhardt's earlier "Kommercielle Tracirung der Verkehrswege" of 1872: "Practical problems of highway planning led Launhardt to the gradually more general analysis of efficient transportation networks. This work was later systematized in Theorie des Trassirens (Theory of Network Planning). Part I, entitled 'Commercial Network Planning', contains the derivation of efficiency criteria without regard to topography. This part is the second edition, much revised and enlarged, of the 1872 publication, and also incorporates sections from the 1885 book Mathematische Begründung der Volkswirtschaftslehre... The contributions to economics are found in part I. This begins with a discussion of investment criteria. From a social point of view, networks should be planned in such a way that the sum of operating and capital costs is a minimum. Private capitalists, however, try to maximize the internal rate of return on their capital. Under perfect competition the two criteria would coincide, since the internal rate of return, if duly maximized would equal the market rate of interest. In reality, however, since the railroad industry is inherently non-competitive, rates of return can be pushed above market rates of interest by keeping railroad investment below the social optimum. This was one of Launhardt's basic arguments for government ownership of railroads. For his own analysis he uses, of course, the social criterion." (Jürg Niehans in The New Palgrave).

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Two works bound in one octavo volume (219 x 140 mm), pp. 49 & iv, 112. Contemporary roan-backed marbled boards, spine ruled and lettered gilt.


With many figures, tables, and charts in the text.


Very good copies in a lightly rubbed contemporary binding.


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