A fine kind of parchment prepared from the skins of calves, lambs, or kids, distinct from leather in that vellum is not tanned, but stretched, scraped, and dried under tension, creating a stiff white, yellowish or translucent animal skin. Thicker grades of vellum are suitable for binding, either on its own (limp vellum) or stretched over wooden boards or pasteboard. More delicate vellum has been used as a medium to write on for scrolls or codices from the second century BCE on. The invention of printing by movable type saw books printed on vellum, but this was quickly reserved only for royal or deluxe copies. Printing on vellum was revived during the private press era; most Kelmscott Press books, for example, were produced with hundreds of copy printed on paper and a few examples on vellum.
The back of a leaf; the side presented to the eye when the leaf has been turned over. The left-hand page of an open book is the verso of that leaf, and faces the recto of the next leaf. In a conventional book, the page number of the verso is an even number.
An illustration without a border or distinct separation from other elements on the page, often used as head- or tailpieces. Title pages with vignettes are specifically referred to as vignette title pages.